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RUSSIA’S REGIONS: FACTS AND FIGURES*
Human Development Index (HDI)
· HDI levels in Moscow are comparable with the Czech Republic and Malta, levels in Tyumen Region are comparable with Hungary and Poland, while St Petersburg and Tatarstan are comparable with Bulgaria, although Russia’s “second capital” is significantly behind the Baltic States. Russia’s weakest HDI regions - Ingushetia and Tyva - are comparable with Mongolia, Guatemala and Tajikistan.
· Analysis of regional HDI dynamics in 2002-2004 shows that distinctions between regions are becoming increasingly marked; mainly in per capita GRP and life expectancy.
· 6% of the Russian population live in regions with the worst indicators (below 0.730).
· Over a quarter of Russia’s population live in regions where the HDI (0.781 – in 2004).
· In 2000-2005, incomes of the richest 20% of Muscovites were 21-28 times higher than incomes of the poorest 20%, which is comparable with Brazil and other Latin American countries.
· Although income inequality in St. Petersburg is only half of that in Moscow, it nearly doubled (from 6 to 10) between 1999 and 2005.
· The poverty rate in most regions in the Volga Federal District is significantly higher (22-30%).
· A quarter of the population of working age in the ethnic republics of the Southern Federal District are unemployed.
· Per capita income in the Southern Federal District is about half the national average.
· Unemployment in Ingushetia reached an unprecedented level of 64.9% in 2005.
· The oil-producing autonomous districts of Tyumen Region have the lowest poverty rate in the country (under 10% in 2005).
· According to 2005 statistics, the youth unemployment rate in Ingushetia is 93.7%.
· The poverty rate in 2005 in about a third of regions of the Siberian Federal District regions still exceeded 30% and the rate in Ust-Orda Autonomous District was the highest in the country at 80%.
· Unemployment among 15-24 year olds in the Siberian Federal District is twice higher than among the population as a whole.
· Ivanovo Region remains exceptionally backward in economic terms: over 40% of the population remains poor.
· Differences between quintile ratios (income of the 20% of people who receive most as a ratio income of the 20% who receive least) in different regions of the Far Eastern Federal District are limited: the ratios are between 6 and 7 in most regions.
· Policies, which aim to improve life quality and achieve specific results, have shown that they can bear fruit even in critical socio-economic condition (as in the Republic of Buryatia).
· Higher income levels in a region tend to entail a larger gap between average wages of men and women.
· Larger and richer regions tend to have less female representation in their parliaments.
· The share of women in two thirds of central regions has not changed or is even falling.
· In 1999-2004, the number of women in regional parliaments fell (to zero in Perm and Orenburg Regions).
· Representation of women in regional parliaments of the Far Eastern Federal District is the highest in the country, with levels significantly higher than the national average in 80% of Far East regions.
· Life expectancy of rural men in Pskov and Novgorod Regions and the Karelian Republic is just 50-51 years.
· Komi-Perm Autonomous District has alarmingly low male life expectancy (50 years).
· Difference between life expectancies of men and women in the Southern Federal District was 11.78 years in 2004.
· Life expectancy for men recently fluctuated between 48 and 51 years in the Republic of Tuva, it was about 50 years in Taimyr Autonomous District, while in Ust-Orda Autonomous District and Irkutsk Region the range is 52-53 years.
· In Koryak Autonomous District life expectancy for men has declined to 46 years (the lowest in Russia).
Maternity and Child Mortality
· The lowest infant and child mortality indicators are found in republics, which have relatively dense populations and smaller incidence of asocial behaviour.
· Success in reducing infant mortality to Western European levels in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District is based on early diagnosis (particularly of genetic disorders), creation of a system of well-equipped and specialized medical centres, and implementation of numerous programmes for development of healthcare.
· Infant mortality is relatively low in towns of the Yamal district (about 9 per 1,000 live births), but it is as high as 25-30 per 1,000 live births among small northern indigenous ethnic groups.
· Poor indicators in Kurgan Region are due to insufficient public health expenditures and inadequate healthcare. This is shown by high under-five mortality, due to lack of emergency medical care and poor diagnostics, which are typical of rural areas.
· Under-5 mortality rates are high in all regions of the Far East, particularly in autonomous districts and Amur Region where the rate is 24 or more deaths per 1000 compared with the Russian average of 14 per 1000 (in 2005).
HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis
· HIV prevalence is in an inverse relationship to levels of economic development: HIV is more widespread in “rich” regions, particularly those with economies that are heavily dependent on raw material extraction and which lack well-developed social infrastructure.
· In St. Petersburg, Kaliningrad and Leningrad Regions the disease has reached near-epidemic proportions with prevalence surpassing 0.5% of the population.
· The highest ratios of people who have tested HIV-positive in the North-West are in Kaliningrad Region and St. Petersburg.
· HIV/AIDS in Volga Federal District has reached near-epidemic proportions.
· Irkutsk is the worst region in Russia by levels of HIV-infection. Its total rate for the period 1987-2006 was more than 3 times higher than the Russian average at 778 infected persons per 100,000 population (0.8% of the region’s population).
· The Southern Federal District has the worst ratio in Russia of active tuberculosis to tuberculosis mortality.
· High rates of tuberculosis in the Siberian Federal District are part of the region’s legacy from the past. Problems, which contribute to the spread of tuberculosis, are unfavourable climate and low availability of medical services due to a thinly spread population and high poverty levels.
· The Koryak Autonomous District has 5 times more tuberculosis cases relative to its population than the rest of the country and the tuberculosis mortality rate in the District is more than 3 times higher than the national average.
*The data from the National Human Development Report for the Russian Federation 2006/2007 is based on official statistics provided by the Federal State Statistical Service and its regional subdivisions as well as by ministries and governmental institutions.